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Modernization and reform, Afghanistan and global political interests

Mahmud Tarzi (an Afghan intellectual) introduces modern journalism in Afghanistan, establishing several newspapers.

Habibullah is assassinated, his son Amanullah (The Reforming King) takes over the throne.
The first Afghan museum is set up in Bagh Bala.

Third Anglo-Afghan War
The British are defeated again and Afghanistan takes over all control over its foreign affairs.
Treaty of Rawolpindi
Amanullah Khan begins a series of efforts to introduce political and social modernisation.

Amanullah Khan changes his title from Amir to Padshah (King).

Amanullah Khan is overthrown by Habibullah Kalakani.
After his fall, Mahmud Tarzi asks for asylum in Turkey.
The rise and fall of Habibullah Kalakani is known as "Bache Saqaw”.
Nadir Khan takes the throne.
Because of the empty treasury, his people's army plunders government buildings and houses of wealthy citizens.
Kalakani Habibullah, his supporters and some supporters of Amanullah Khan are killed by Nadir Khan.
Nadir Khan has total control.

May An uprising by followers of Amanullah Khan is suppressed by Nadir Khan.
Nadir Khan abolishes reforms that had been continued by Amanullah Khan to modernize Afghanistan.

Nadir Khan assassinated by a student.
His son, Zahir, inherits the throne and rules until 1973.
Zahir Shah's uncles serve as prime minister and advisor till 1953.
Mahmud Tarzi dies at the age of 68 years in Turkey.

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